Takbeer is the recitation of:
.اللهُ اَكْبَر اللهُ اَكْبَر، لا إلهَ إلَّا الله، واللهُ اَكْبَر اللهُ اَكْبَر،ولله الحَمْد
Allahu Akbar Allahu Akbar, La ilaaha illallaahu Wallaahu Akbar, Allahu Akbar wa lillaahil hamd.
Trans: Allah is the Greatest, Allah is the Greatest, There is no deity except Allah and Allah is the Greatest, Allah is the Greatest and to Allah belongs all praise.
After every Fardh Salaah commencing from the Fajr of the 9th of Dhul-Hijjah until the Asr of the 13th of Dhul-Hijjah.
- Sayyiduna Ali رضى الله عنه used to recite the Takbeer from after Fajr Salah (9th Dhul-Hijjah) on the Day Arafah till Asr of the last day of Tashreeq (13th Dhul-Hijjah). He used to recite the Takbeer after Asr. [I’laaus Sunan #2143 from Musannaf ibn Abi Shaybah and Nasbur Rayah].
- Ubaid ibn Umair narrates, “Umar ibn Khattab رضى الله عنه used to recite the Takbeer after Fajr on the Day of Arafah (9th Dhul-Hijjah) till Zuhr of the last day of Tashreeq (13th Dhul-Hijjah).
[I’laaus Sunan #2144 from Hakim].
- Sayyiduna Abdullah ibn Abbas رضى الله عنه used to recite the Takbeer from the morning of Arafah (9th Dhul-Hijjah) till Asr Salah of the last day of Tashreeq (13th Dhul-Hijjah). [I’laaus Sunan #2145 from Hakim].
- Umair ibn Saeed narrates, “Ibn Masood رضى الله عنه came to us. He used to recite the Takbeer from Fajr Salah of the Day of Arafah (9th Dhul-Hijjah) till Asr on the last day of Tashreeq (13th Dhul-Hijjah).” [I’laaus Sunan #2146 from Hakim].
Few masaa’il pertaining to the Takbeer
- Takbir Tashriq is Wajib upon mature males and females.
- The Takbir will be pronounced after every Salah from the Fajr of the 9th of Dhul-Hijjah until the Asr of the 13th of Dhul-Hijjah. 23 Salah in total.
- It is Wajib to say it once loudly immediately after every Fardh Salah.
- The Takbir will also be said after the Jumuah Salah and can be said once after the Eid Salah as well.
- Travelers (musafir) and those who perform Salah individually are also obliged to say the Takbiraat.
- A person who joins the Jamaat late in the Masjid will say the Takbir after he has completed his Salah.
Ten Days of Dhul – Hijjah
“And mention the name of Allah on known days.” Al-Hajj, v.28.
- Sayyiduna Abdullah ibn Abbas رضى الله عنه reports, “The Known Days are the first ten days of Dhul Hijjah.” During these ten days, Sayyiduna Abdullah ibn Umar رضى الله عنه and Sayyiduna Abu Hurayrah رضى الله عنه would go to the marketplace and recite the Takbir. The people would also repeat the Takbir. [Saheeh Bukhari: The Book of Eidain].
- Sayyidah Hafsah (Allah is pleased with her) reports that Nabi ﷺ would never leave out four things.
- Fasting on Aashura [10th of Muharram].
- Fasting ten days [ie. the first nine days of Dhul Hijjah].
- Fasting three days every month.
- Two rak’ahs [Sunnah] before Fajr.
[Sunan Nasai #2416; Musnad Ahmad #26459].
- Sayyiduna Abdullah ibn Abbas رضى الله عنه related that the Prophet of Allah ﷺ said, “No good deeds done on ten days are superior to those done on these (first ten days of Dhul- Hijjah).” Part of a lengthier hadith [Bukhari #969].
- Sayyiduna Abu Hurayrah رضى الله عنه related that the Prophet of Allah ﷺ said, “On no days is the worship of Allah desired more than in the (first) ten days of Dhul-Hijjah. The fast of each of these days is equal to the fast of a whole year, and the worship of each of these nights is equal to the worship of Laylatul-Qadr.” [At-Tirmidhi #758, Imam Tirmidhi has declared this Hadith as weak. However, this Hadith is suitable to practice upon as is the rule of Hadiths of this nature.]
- Some of the wives of Nabi ﷺ have reported, “Nabi ﷺ would fast the (first) nine days of Dhul-Hijjah. [Abu Dawud #2437, An-Nasa’i #2417]
- Sayyiduna Abdullah Ibn Umar رضى الله عنه related that the Prophet of Allah ﷺ said, “No days are as weighty with Allah and so liked by Him for good deeds than the first ten days of Dhul-Hijjah. So on these days increase your Tahleel (to say لا إله إلا الله), Takbeer (to say الله اكبر), Tahmeed (to say(الحمد لله .” [Ahmad #5446]
- Sayyiduna Anas ibn Malik رضى الله عنه reports, “It used to be said (by the Sahabah) that every day of the ten days (of Dhul-Hijjah) is equal to a thousand days, and the day of Arafah is equal to (in virtue) ten thousand days.” [Al-Targhib wa al-Tarheeb, vol. 2 pg. 128].
- Sayyidah Umm Salamah رضى الله عنه that the Prophet ﷺ said: “When you see the hilal of Dul-Hijjah (month begins) and anyone of you intends to perform the sacrifice, he should not get his hair cut or nails trimmed (until he has sacrificed the animal).” [Muslim #1977].
Note: According to Hanafi fiqh, It is mustahabb (recommended) to practice upon this hadith. If someone decides to cut his hair or trim the nails before Qurbani, there will be no sin, and Qurbani will be valid.
Mustahabb – means preferable. If a person does it he will be rewarded. If it is left out, there will be no sin or reproach.
Virtues of the Day of ‘Arafah (9th Dhul-Hijjah)
- Sayyiduna Talhah رضى الله عنه reports that the Prophet of Allah ﷺ said, “Apart from the day of the Battle of Badr there is no day on which the Shaytan is seen to be more humiliated, more rejected, more depressed and more infuriated, than on the day of Arafah, and indeed all this is only because of beholding the abundance of descending mercy (on the day) and Allah’s forgiveness of the great sins of the servants.” [Muwatta Imam Malik #1269].
- Sayyiduna Abu Qatadah Al-Ansari رضى الله عنه narrated that the Prophet of Allah ﷺ said, “Fasting on the Day of Arafah, I hope from Allah, it expiates for the sins of the year before and the year after.” [Muslim #1162, At-Tirmidhi #749, Ibn Majah #1730].
Night of Eid-al-Adha
The nights of both Eids are described in a weak Hadith as amongst the virtuous and sacred nights in the Islamic calendar. To remain awake on the nights of Eid and to perform ‘ibadah, is a source of great blessings and reward. Spending the whole night in worship is not necessary.
Sayyiduna Abu ‘Umamah رضى الله عنه related that the Prophet ﷺ said, “Whosoever stands (for worship) on the nights of the two Eids, with hope for reward, his heart will not die on the day (i.e. Qiyamah) when all hearts will die.” [Al-Targhib wa al-Tarheeb, vol. 2 pg. 98].
Apart from the compulsory acts of worship and refraining from sin, the recommended actions during the first nine days of Dhul-Hijjah are:
- To increase the remembrance of Allah through Dhikr.
- To fast the nine days, especially the Day of Arafah.
- To spend extra time in optional worship.
- To engage in various good deeds, e.g. repentance, sadaqah, Qur’an recitation, etc.
[فَصَلِّ لِرَبِّكَ وَٱنْحَرْ]
“So turn in prayer towards your Lord and sacrifice (animals).” (Surah Al Kawthar, v.2)
- The Mother of the Believers, Sayyidah Aishah (Allah is pleased with her) reports that the Prophet of Allah ﷺ said, “A human does no action from the actions on the day of Nahr (Udhiyyah) more beloved to Allah then spilling blood (sacrificing an animal). On the Day of judgement, it will appear with its horns, and hair, and hooves, and indeed the blood will be accepted by Allah from where it is received before it even falls upon the earth, so let your heart delight in it.” [At-Tirmidhi #1493, Ibn Majah #3126].
- Sayyiduna Zayd ibn Arqam رضى الله عنه relates that the Companions (Allah is pleased with them) asked, “O Messenger of Allah! What is Udhiyyah?” He replied, “It is the sunnah of your father Ibrahim (Peace be upon him) .” They asked again, “What benefit do we get from it?” He answered, “A reward for every hair (of the sacrificed animal).” “And (what reward is there for animals with) wool, O Messenger of Allah?” they asked. “A reward,” he said, “for every fibre of the wool.” [Ibn Majah #3127].
- Sayyiduna Jundub bin Sufyan Al-Bajali رضى الله عنه relates, “Once during the lifetime of The Messenger of Allah ﷺ we offered some animals as sacrifices. Some people slaughtered their sacrifices before the (Eid) prayer, so when the Prophet ﷺ finished his prayer, he saw that they had slaughtered their sacrifices before the prayer. He said, ‘Whoever has slaughtered (his sacrifice) before the prayer, should slaughter (another sacrifice) in lieu of it; and whoever has not yet slaughtered it till we have prayed; should slaughter (it) by mentioning Allah’s Name.’” [Bukhari #5500].
- Sayyiduna Abu Hurayrah رضى الله عنه related that the Prophet of Allah ﷺ said, “Whoever can afford it, but does not offer a sacrifice, let him not come near our prayer place (the place where Eid salat is performed).” [Ibn Majah #3123].
- Sayyiduna Al-Bara’ ibn Azib رضى الله عنه reports: I heard the Prophet ﷺ delivering a sermon saying, “The first thing to be done on this day (Eid al-Adhaa) is to perform salah; and after returning from the prayer we perform the sacrifice. Whoever does so, has acted according to our Sunna.” [Bukhari, #951].
Few basic masaa’il pertaining to Udhiyyah/Qurbani
Udhiyyah/Qurbani is Wajib (obligatory) on every male and female Muslim who is:
- Of sound mind and mature (has reached the age of puberty).
- Non-Traveller (i.e. Muqeem – not a Shari’ traveller/musafir).
- Possesses the Nisab amount (87.48 grams of gold) or its equivalent in cash, personal jewelry or any other form of wealth which is in excess of one’s basic personal needs and debts on any of the three days of Udhiyyah/Qurbani, i.e. 10th, 11th and the 12th of Dhul-Hijjah. Unlike in the case of Zakah, it is not necessary that this amount be in one’s possession for a complete lunar year.
Nisab: 87.48 grams of gold = $6,361.23CDN. Price as of July, 08/21. For updated nisab amount, please refer to https://darulfiqh.com/
If Qurbani is wajib, it cannot be substituted by another act of worship such as charity. Qurbani is a separate act of worship. Similar as salah, it cannot be replaced by charity or zakah.
The animal for Udhiyyah/Qurbani must be:
- A one year old goat or sheep/lamb
- A two year old cow, bull or buffalo
- A five year old camel.
A lamb that is older than six months and physically appears to be one year old will suffice for Qurbani. This ruling applies to lamb only and not to goats.
A lamb less than 6 months of age is not acceptable for Qurbani.
A goat less than one year old is not acceptable for Qurbani.
A cow less than two years old is not acceptable for Qurbani.
Animals should be healthy. Animals with certain defects are not accepted for Udhiyyah/Qurbani.
The time for Qurbani begins after the Eid Salaah on the 10th of Zul Hijjah and ends at the setting of the sun on the 12th of Zul Hijjah. It is better to perform Qurbani on the first day, then the second, and thereafter the third.
A lamb, sheep or goat suffices for one person only.
A cow, buffalo or camel will suffice for seven persons.
There are no restrictions on how the meat should be distributed. It is recommended to divide the meat into three—one-third for one’s family and the remaining two for relatives and the poor.
The meat of an animal that has seven shares (i.e. cow, buffalo, camel) must be equally distributed among the shareholders by weighing it accurately. It should not be distributed by mere estimation.
Qurbani will be discharged if one appoints a representative for this task and the representative fulfils the task. The representative may be an organization, business, or individual, whether in one’s own country or another country.
NOTE: For further masaa’il/details on Udhiyyah/Qurbani please consult a religious scholar.
The religious rulings are based on Hanafi fiqh.
Shaikhul Hind Mawlana Mahmoodul Hasan d. 1920 (May Allah have mercy on him) was a great saint and scholar of his time. He would personally feed his Qurbaani cow milk and jelebi. The cow become very attached to him. When he would leave his home to deliver lessons at the Darul Uloom, it would follow him right to the madrasah gate where it would sit down. When he would return after lessons, it would follow him back home. On the day of Eid, he would begin to cry and tears would flow while sacrificing the cow. On the same day he would purchase another cow for the following year. This way he would tend to the cow for an entire year.
By Imam Mushtaq Shaikh